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variables

Central Tendency and Variability

Descriptive statistics allows you to describe a sample by creating a frequency distribution of the variables being examined. The frequency distribution is visually displayed with the variable of the x-axis and the tally of each value on the y-axis (Cipher, 2017). Measures of central tendencies are the mean, median, and mode. The mean is the average of all the values of the variable; the median is the middle value; the mode is the most common reoccurring value (Frankfort-Nachmias et al., 2020).

Continuous Variable: Age of the Respondents

The data displayed in the histogram in figure 1.2 is the continuous variable; the age of the respondents from the General social survey dataset using IBM SPSS statistics software, version 27 (Walden University, 2014). The dataset for the respondent’s age is 508 (n=508), displayed in Figure 1.1, is clearly outlined. The respondents’ mean age is 48, and the median age is 48, with the mode being 38, which is the most commonly occurring age (Walden, 2014). The standard deviation is 17, with the mean age being 48; the age ranges will be 31 to 75 years of age. The central tendencies of the data are equal, with skewness of -327, no possibilities of error.

Social Change

The data displayed in the histogram in figure 1.2 is the age of the respondents, reveals the respondents are middle-aged adults. The data is not skewed, so it would be safe to use to make an assumption of the sample population. The research question that this data could help to answer is:

How does the population’s age influence the federal healthcare programs for the urban communities in the northeast region of the United States?

Figure 1-1: Age of the Respondents The data displayed in the histogram in figure 1.2 is the continuous variable; the age of the respondents from the General social survey dataset using IBM SPSS statistics software, version 27 (Walden University, 2014). The respondent’s age dataset is 510 (n=510), with no missing data displayed in Figure 2.1. The frequency distribution shows that of the 510 respondents, 417 were white, which is 81.8% of the sample population, 44 respondents were black, which is 8.6%, and 49 of the respondents from another race at 9.6% of the population sample (Walden, 2014).

Social Change

The data displayed in figure 2.2 is a bar graph of the category variable; the race of the respondents reveals more respondents that are white in the sample population. The data may have validity and reliability concerns since the data may not be transferable since 81.8% of the respondents were white. The variation in the data of the race of the respondents impedes making assumptions for the population. The research question that the data could help to answer is:

What is the relationship between race and healthcare equity in the rural Midwest of the United States?

Figure1: Frequency Distribution – Race of the Respondents

References

Cipher, D. J. (2017). Introduction to statistical analysis. In J. R. Gray, S. K. Grove, & S. Sutherland (Eds.), Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (8th ed., 523–527). Saunders Elsevier.

Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Leon-Guerrero, A. Y., & Davis, G. (2020). Measures of central tendency. In Social statistics for a diverse society (9th ed., pp. 75–111). SAGE Publications, Inc.

Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Leon-Guerrero, A. Y., & Davis, G. (2020). The what and the why of statistics. In Social statistics for a diverse society (9th ed., 8–14, 43-74). SAGE Publications, Inc.

Wagner, III, W. E. (2020). Using ibm® spss® statistics for research methods and social science statistics (7th ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc. (US).

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