Identify the various types of social norms and give an example of each as they are found in the field of nursing.
April 8, 2021
Describe and discuss medical and psycho-social factors that can influence a clients nutrition and nutrition education.
April 8, 2021

The current study sought to investigate the effects of technology on learners’ engagement and academic achievement. The researcher searched relevant databases, critically appraised and evaluated relevant articles on the subject. The study screened relevant studies from the various databases by title, abstracts, and full texts. The article screening process yielded five articles satisfying the inclusion criteria. Consequently, the researcher extracted data from all five articles, summarised them, and included all the five studies in a narrative synthesis. A meta-analysis was not possible due to high heterogeneity among the study designs.

The current study summarised the included studies’ characteristics alongside their corresponding primary findings and estimates in table 1. The five studies were published between 2018 and 2020 and included participants in different education levels ranging from K12 to college. Ayega (2020) used an experimental research design, while Sanhi (2019), and Tezer & Cimsir (2018) used a mixed-method research design. Higgins et al. (2019) is a systematic review and meta-analysis, while Raja & Nagasubramani (2018) detailed the proceeding of a conference of trending teaching methods in India.

Results from the five studies conflicted on the effects of technology on learners’ engagement and academic achievement. For instance, Tezer & Cimsir (2018) found positive effects of integrating technology in teaching students’ academic achievement compared to traditional learning. On the contrary, Ayega (2020) found negative effects of unrestricted access to technology on students’ academic performance. Higgins et al. (2019) also highlighted the conflicting results in their meta-analysis across the various outcome domains investigated by the individual studies.

Study and year


Statistical Method



Ayega (2020).



(F (1,20) =6.09,

; F (1,20)=10.65, p ˂ 0.0038

Students with unrestricted access to the internet had significantly lower academic achievement scores than those with limited access to the internet.

Sahni (2019).

Mixed method approach

The study primarily focused on the qualitative approach in reporting its findings. Students perceived a blended learning approach as more interactive, engaging, and better academic achievement.

Tezer & Cimsir, B. T. (2018).

Mixed method approach (Experimental and qualitative)


Mean of the final test in intervention and control groups (68.3 vs. 60.1, p = 0.000)

Integrating technology in teaching leads to higher academic achievement.

Higgins et al. (2019)

Systematic review and meta-analysis

Different studies reported different estimates depending on the domain of interest.

Results were conflicting on the effect of technology on learners’ engagement and academic achievement.

Raja & Nagasubramani (2018)

A report on the proceedings of a conference on education in India.

The report highlighted several applications of technology in education and potential implications in India.

Table 1: Summaries of the included studies


Ayega, D. (2020). Education technology: Success of using technology in teaching and learning. African Research Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 7(2).

Higgins, K., Huscroft-D’Angelo, J., & Crawford, L. (2019). Effects of technology in mathematics on achievement, motivation, and attitude: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(2), 283-319.

Raja, R., & Nagasubramani, P. C. (2018). Impact of modern technology in education. Journal of Applied and Advanced Research, 3(1), 33-35.

Sahni, J. (2019). Does Blended Learning Enhance Student Engagement? Evidence from Higher Education. Journal of e-Learning and Higher Education, 2019, 1-14.

Tezer, M., & Çimşir, B. T. (2018). The impact of using mobile-supported learning management systems in teaching web design on the academic success of students and their opinions on the course. Interactive Learning Environments, 26(3), 402-410.